岳晓勇:政治解决阿富汗问题的正确之道

来源:观察者网

2021-11-26 09:54

岳晓勇

岳晓勇作者

中国外交部阿富汗事务特使

【导读】 本文为中国外交部阿富汗事务特使岳晓勇在GTH全球智库大会上的发言。

【翻译:中国论坛 祖白地亚 校译:中国论坛 韩桦】

岳晓勇:感谢印度尼西亚外交政策协会(FPCI)的邀请,使我有机会在此次“全球智库大会”(GTH)上与各位专家讨论“阿富汗的未来及其对地区安全的影响”这一全球热点话题。印尼主办这个讨论再合适不过:作为人口最多的穆斯林国家,印尼在国家现代化建设和经济社会发展方面成就非凡,为地区和世界的和平、安全和繁荣做出了卓越贡献。

中国外交部阿富汗事务特使岳晓勇。来源:中国外交部

最近三个月,我和我的团队马不停蹄走访了15个国家,会见了阿富汗、东亚南亚中亚、中东、欧洲、联合国日内瓦总部、俄罗斯和美国等近30个国家和国际组织代表。这些出访与交流产生了一些我认为非常重要的信息和观点,在相互尊重基础上开展理性务实接触、加强人道援助、推进建设性引导,应该是政治解决阿富汗问题的关键,也是实现阿可持续和平、稳定和重建之道。具体分享以下几点:

第一,国际社会在阿富汗问题上确形成一定共识,并认同中国的主张:阿富汗问题,特别是8月15日发生重大变化后的局势,以及许多国家应对变局所进行的努力,不是一个地缘政治的问题,也不是所谓“大国角力’的问题。它关系到人类自身共同生存之道和人道关怀,关系到人要有住的有吃的,关系到阿富汗作为一个主权国家能否渡过当前由乱及治的关键阶段,抓住机会,将阿富汗的命运掌握在其人民自己手中,实现国家重建,并参与到世界各国一道构建人类命运共同体进程中来。

阿富汗总统阿什拉夫·加尼周日逃离阿富汗后,塔利班控制了阿富汗总统府。来源:金融时报

第二,各方强烈同意,应从阿富汗问题中吸取历史教训。尊重各国自主选择发展道路,尊重不同文明包容互鉴,是主权国家之间相处的正道。干涉别国内政,甚至诉诸军事手段,只会导致冲突、动荡、贫困和人道主义灾难。这就是为何在新近举行的两次阿富汗周边国家外长会议、“莫斯科模式”会议、多哈一系列会谈和我在日内瓦的对话以及众多的有关双边、多边或联合国讨论中,大多数与会者指出,过去20年里一些国家特别是某个大国,在阿富汗长期驻扎大批军队,进行全面干预,铸成大错;应认真反思并尽快纠正这样做所犯错误,解冻阿富汗的流动资金和海外资产,解除单边制裁,担负起最主要责任,防止阿富汗出现人道主义危机,向阿富汗人民提供真正的帮助。

第三,还有越来越明显的共识是,各方要对阿富汗人民面临的挑战和机遇保持公正和平衡的看法。随着阿临时政府成立,阿富汗正在努力建立新的政治架构,恢复生产和生活秩序,积极开展对外开交往与合作。阿人民正努力抓住这个机会重建阿富汗。与此同时,阿富汗也面临四重挑战:国家政治重建、经济重振、打击恐怖和人道危机。由于国家治理能力严重薄弱,民生困顿,安全形势复杂严峻,阿富汗需要人民自身的团结努力,也离不开国际社会的大力支持和帮助。

第四,正是中国在8月15日阿变局后的第一时间,最早就国际社会应如何应对变局以及阿富汗如何实现稳定过渡和重建提出期望和主张,如今都已成为国际共识。这包括构建开放包容的政治架构;实行温和稳健的内外政策,包括促进妇女权益保障和教育;坚决打击恐怖势力;同世界各国尤其是邻国和睦相处。

塔利班代理外交部长阿米尔汗穆塔奇和美国首次面对面会谈中要求美国解冻阿富汗金融资产。来源:CNBC

第五,各涉阿问题机制加强协调非常重要。中方积极参与阿问题的国际协调,出席一系列多边和地区会议,推动各方形成共识、加强合作。我们同阿周边国家一道,成功建立阿富汗邻国协调合作机制,为阿富汗实现长治久安加强发挥邻国独特作用,得到国际社会高度重视和积极响应。

根据阿富汗人民需要,中方向阿富汗提供价值2亿元人民币的紧急人道主义援助,有关物资正陆续运抵。令人振奋的是,近期中阿密切合作,建立了阿富汗松子出口“空中走廊”,首批45吨松子在中国销售一空,惠及阿富汗成千上万的普通家庭和妇女。中方还通过提供疫苗和医疗防护物资帮助阿富汗早日控制新冠疫情。中方将继续在力所能及范围内,支持阿富汗经济社会发展,扩大经贸合作。

“空中走廊”货机在喀布尔机场举行仪式。来源:时代周刊

第六,支持阿富汗实现长治久安,防范安全问题外溢,帮助阿富汗走上良政善治之路,对地区和世界各国都有利。各国各方应支持与阿富汗临时政府理性务实的接触和对话,增强互信,进行积极引导,鼓励阿富汗积极回应国际社会的共同关切。为此我们要加强阿富汗问题各种机制的相互促进和协同,帮助阿富汗实现经济重建,防止出现难民潮和人道主义灾难。国际社会应加强反恐合作,支持阿富汗新临时政府打击“伊斯兰国”、“东伊运”和所有恐怖组织,建立反恐统一战线,摒弃双重标准和选择性反恐,确保阿富汗不再沦为恐怖主义滋生地、庇护所和扩散源。

正如中国国务委员兼外交部长王毅反复指出的那样,中国一直是阿富汗的友好邻邦。我们始终尊重阿富汗的主权独立和领土完整,支持阿富汗人民自主决定国家命运和选择的发展道路,从不干涉阿富汗内政,坚定奉行面向阿富汗全体人民的友好政策,为政治解决阿富汗问题发挥建设性作用。中国今后会一如既往,继续这样做,与各国一道,为阿富汗早日实现和平、稳定与发展而努力,发挥应有的建设性作用。

王毅谈中国对阿富汗政策。来源:中国外交部

Engagement, Assistance and Constructive Guidance with Mutual Respect

----Video-Speech at The Panel Discussion on “The Future of Afghanistan and Its Impact on Regional Security”[ The title is added later with some editing when publishing.]

By Dr. Yue Xiaoyong, Sp. Envoy for Afghanistan, MFA of China;

Online from Wuhan; November 20, 2021, Jakarta

I would like to thank Global Town Hall, FPCI of Indonesia for inviting me to speak here with such distinguished personalities in the profession, and discuss “The Future of Afghanistan and Its Impact on Regional Security”, a world-wide focused topic now. Indonesia is a most appropriate country to hold this timely discussion. As the biggest Muslim country in population, it has been very successful in its national modernization and economic-social development achievements with remarkable contribution for regional and global peace, security and prosperity.    

I have travelled with my team non-stop over recent three months to 15 countries. We met with many people in charge from nearly thirty countries or international organizations including Afghanistan, East-South-Central Asia, Middle East, Europe, UN representative and its Geneva headquarters, Russia and United States. Those trips and meetings have led to some very important messages, rational and pragmatic engagement with timely assistance and constructive guidance is the key for political settlement of Afghanistan issue and for the country to achieve sustainable peace, stability and reconstruction. Let me elaborate:

1, International community do have consensus about Afghan issue, and agree with what China has been advocating: this issue, especially the situation after significant change of August 15, and the efforts many countries have been making, is not something about geopolitics, nor that of big powers wrestling. It is about humanity and humanitarian care, about shelter and food, about whether Afghanistan as a sovereign nation can tide over crucial transition from turbulence to order and grasp opportunity to have the fate of Afghanistan into its people’s own hands for national reconstruction and for joining us all in building up a shared future for human community.

2, There is a strong consensus that a historic lesson shall be drawn from Afghanistan issue: the only right way for relationship between sovereign countries is to respect a nation’s own choice of their development path and respect different civilizations through mutual inclusiveness and mutual learning. Intervention into a nation’s internal affairs with even military means can only lead to conflicts, instability, poverty and humanitarian disasters.

That is why in two newly-set Afghanistan neighboring countries FM meetings, Moscow Format gathering, Doha and Geneva dialogues and dozens of multilateral, bilateral or regional discussions, most participants stressed that some countries especially some big power after staying in Afghanistan over the past 20 years with massive troops, should as soon as possible redress its mistakes, defreezing Afghan liquidity and overseas assets, lifting unilateral sanctions and shoulder primary responsibility to prevent Afghanistan from humanitarian crisis so as to offer real help to Afghan people.

3, It is an enhanced common standing that a fair and balanced view is needed regarding challenges and opportunities Afghan people face. With its interim government emerged, the country is making efforts to build its new political structure, restoring living and working order, opening external relations and cooperation. People there are being trying to seize that opportunity to reconstruct Afghanistan. Challenges meanwhile are daunting in at least 4 folds, political restructuring, economic reconstruction, countering-terrorism, humanitarian suffering. With weak governess ability, livelihood hardship and complicated security situation, Afghanistan needs more humanitarian assistance, constructive guidance and support to survive and fulfil their dream.

4, It is China that has been initiating since earliest stage after August 15 change as to what are expected from Afghanistan in transition. Those positions have now become international consensus, including to set up an open and inclusive political structure; to implement moderate and prudent internal and external policies with rights for women and education; to make a clear break away from terrorist groups with resolute strikes; to pursue friendly relations with all countries especially good-neighborliness.

5, Enhancing multilateral coordination matters. China has been keen on participating in international coordination in multilateral and regional platforms, help to forge common ground and cooperation from all sides. We have worked with partners and succeeded in setting up Afghanistan neighboring countries cooperation mechanism. This platform is offering neighboring countries’ unique role for Afghanistan striving for long-term and sustainable peace and security and has won great international attention and positive response.

Based on what Afghan people need, China announced RMB 200 million worth of emergency humanitarian assistance. Delivery has been reaching Afghan people. It is strikingly encouraging that an Afghan pine nuts export air corridor is built up recently with 45 tons of first batch of goods sold out in China, benefiting thousands of Afghanistan working families and women. We are also helping Afghans to combat Covid-19 by providing vaccines, medical supplies and protective gears. China will try its best to continue supporting Afghan economic and social development and expand trade and business cooperation.

6, It is conducive to all in the region and world to help Afghanistan to bring about long-term stability, prevent spillover of its security problems and help it step onto good governess and political structure. All sides should support rational and pragmatic engagement and dialogue with Afghan interim government, enhance mutual confidence, exercise positive guidance and encourage Afghanistan to positively respond to international common concern. International community should strengthen counter-terrorism cooperation by supporting Afghan new interim government in its fighting of ISIL, ETIM and all terrorist organizations, forge a united front against terror and cast away double standards or selective approach to ensure that Afghanistan no longer becomes safe haven or concentrating places of terrorism groups. We need to increase mutual reinforcement and build synergy between various mechanisms on Afghanistan to assist the country for reconstruction, prevent refugee exodus and humanitarian nightmare.  

As our State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi has emphasized in many occasions that China has all along been a friendly neighboring country with Afghanistan. We have always respected its sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity, supported its people to decide by their own its nation’s aspiration and development path, never intervened its domestic affairs, firmly carry out friendship policy with all Afghan people and played a constructive role in political settlement of Afghan issue. China will certainly continue to do so in future,ready to keep on working with all countries for an earlier realization of peace, stability and development in Afghanistan and play our constructive role.  (***)

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